Science Bulletin, 23 July, 2022, DOI：https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scib.2022.07.023
Organelle biogenesis: ribosomes as organizer and performer
Qi Wang, Yibo Wang, Shuoguo Li, Aoqi Zhou, Yan Qin
When viewed as a broad concept, organelle biogenesis is considered the main event of cytoplasm formation, during which the vesicle precursors of cellular organelles are translocated and biosynthesized with biomolecular inputs and assembly. In this paper, we sum up the recent research advances on the phenomenon known as “organelle biogenesis.”
Organelle precursors have been observed recently in nuclei. A correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) study  of mammalian cells in (paro-)physiological states has reported the nuclear location of organelle precursors. In particular, the round-shaped intranuclear vesicle  with mitochondrial or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) constitutive proteins were observed to be widely disturbed in the nuclei (Fig. 1a). Unlike previously reported virus- or transporter-related intranuclear vesicles, these vesicles were characterized by their round shape, small size (～200 nm), and the protein components of early ER or mitochondria in a similar manner as the organelles in mammalian embryonic stem cells (ESCs) . During ESC differentiation, the mitochondria have been shown to undergo morphological changes from a small, round shape to an elongated one ,  (Fig. 1b). This finding suggests their biogenesis steps with proteins and other biomolecular inputs achieve full biological functions in differentiated cells (Fig. 1c). All these recent studies suggest that organelle biogenesis might be initiated by the small, round-shaped vesicles (the seeds of the organelles) in the nuclei, followed by their translocation into the cytoplasm and protein import to achieve their complete construction and biological functions.